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The biological approach

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The biological approach

Post by Admin on Wed Sep 03, 2008 3:14 pm

the main assumptions of each approach
how the biological approach can be applied in one form of therapy (either chemotherapy or psychosurgery);
how the biological approach can be applied to Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome;
the strengths and weaknesses of the biological approach;
the biological approach in terms of similarities and/or differences with other approaches (compare and contrast);
an explanation and evaluation of the methodology of the biological approach.
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PSYCHO SURGERY.

Post by Ninblingxo on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:41 am

This is the removal of small amounts of brain tissue in specific locations in order to reduce abnormal behaviours such as severe obsessions or (controversially) -extreme agression.

*Localisation and the aims of PsychoSurgery.

Brain functions are localised. As a result, damage to a particular brain area can have specific effects on psychological functions. This idea is the basis of PsychoSurgery. -The use of surgery on the brain to treat psychological disorders.

*Techniques in PsychoSurgery.

One of the first wise spread uses of PsychoSurgery was a procedure called a Labotomy. Early Labotomies were called Leucotomies -(From Leuco, the white matter of the brain.) and (Tome, to cut.)
The technique was pioneered bu Egas Moniz and developed by Walter Freeman. It was based on a report that Moniz heard in 1935. A lab Chimpanzee that became very distressed when she made errors on tests, was subdued by a bilateral lesion to the prefrontal areas of her left and right frontal lobes. The safety of this treatment for highly emotionally distressed people was supported by a case in which a person had their frontal lobes removed. They appeared not to suffer any intellectual impairment.

*Leucotomy.

This is an opperation in which a narrow device called a Leuchtome was insterted (via holes made in the skull) into the frontal lobes. The 'blade' of the Leucotome, a wire loop, was then extended and the device was rotated to lesion core of tissue. This procedure could be repeated several times to destroy peices of prefrontal cortex.




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Psychosurgery

Post by Sarcastic.Bringer.Of.Doom on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:45 am

Psychosurgery is a subset of neurosurgery intended to modulate the performance of the brain and thus effect the changes in cognition with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness.

The History of Psychosurgery
It was origionally thought that by severing the nerves that give power to ideas, you would stop them working and flatten emotion, which would stop creativity and imagination.
The procedure typically considered as psychosurgery (Prefrontal Leukotomy) is now almost universally shunned as innappropriate due to safer, more reliable methods.

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Re: The biological approach

Post by NMT on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:45 am

Psychosurgery
Damage to particular brain areas can have specific effects on psychological functions. This idea is the basis of psychosurgery,
use of surgery on the brain to treat psychological disorders. The objective was to relive distress and anxiety, particularly in patients who did not respond to any other treatment. Although the function of the targeted brain areas had not been identified, the effect of the surgery was deemed, at least at first, to have a specific effect. One of the first widespread uses of psychosurgery was a procedure called lobotomy. The technique was pioneered by Egas Moniz and developed by Walter Freeman. It was based on a report that Moniz heard in 1935. A lab chimp that became very distressed when she made errors on tests was subdued by a bilateral lesion to the prefrontal areas of her left and right frontal lobes. The safety of this treatment for highly emotionally distressed people was supported by a case in which a person had their frontal lobes removed to destroy a tumor. This patient appeared not to suffer any intellectual impairment, despite the physical damage to the brain.
Treating mental illness by operating on the brain. Lobotomies and cingulotomies were used when no other treatment had worked. The lobotomy was widely used but had a poor success rate. It was popular in part because it made it possible to control difficult patients. Cingulotomies have a higher success rate and fewer side effects but still carry considerable risks!!!!! Very Happy

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Re: The biological approach

Post by Will Edwards on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:47 am

Psychosurgery

Brain functions are localised, as a result of damage to particular brain areas can have specific effects on psychological function. Yhe use of the treatment is to treat disorders.

Techniques used!
One of the first widespread procedures was called a labotomy, early lobotomies were called leucotomies( from leuco, refering to the white matter of the brain and "tome", to cut.
The technique was pioneered by Egas Moniz and developed by Walter freeman
This was used on a chimpanzee who became very distressed when she made errors on tests

Leucotomy- An operation in which a narrow devre called a leucadome was inserted into the frontal lobe, the "blade" of the leucotome a wire loop, was then extended and the device was related to a lesion of core tissue. This procedure could be repeated up to 7 times to destroy core pieces of prefrontal cortex

Transorbital labotomy which used a special knife called a ice pick inserted under the eye lid into the back of the eye socket. This was used to break through the skull into the brain and moved around to destroy connections between the prefrontal area and the brain areas.

This treatment was used on patients who were emotions unstable and violent and didn't respond to therapy.

The evidence on which labotomies were based was very limited.

Current procedures- Bilateral cingulotomy - used to help patients with OCD who don't respond to anything else this destroys the link between the lymbic system to the frontal lobe

Cingulomoties have a higher sucess rate. Few side effects however still carry risk

=] !!


Last edited by Will Edwards on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:49 am; edited 1 time in total

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Re: The biological approach

Post by Jack Colohan on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:48 am

Psychosurgery is a type of neosurgery that modulates the performance of the brain and affects changes in cognition with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness.

The frontal lobe of the brain controls a number of advanced cognitive functions, as well as motor control. Motor control is located at the rear of the frontal lobe, and is usually unaffected by psychosurgery.

Psychosurgery was not commonly practiced until the early 20th century. The first systematic attempts at human psychosurgery occured in 1935, when the neosurgeon Egas Moniz teamed up with the surgeon Almeida Lune to perform a series of prefrontal lobotomies - a procedure severing the connection between the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the brain.

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Re: The biological approach

Post by Niki on Thu Sep 18, 2008 11:50 am

Pschosurgery.
This is treating mental illnesses by operating on the brain, Lobotomies and Cingulotomies were examples used when no othyer treatment had worked. The Lobotomy was widely used but had a poor success rate. It was popular in part because it made it possible to control difficult patients. Cingullotomies have ahigher success rate and fewer side effects but still carry considerable risks.
Damage to particular brain areas can ahave specific effects on psychological functions. This idea is the basis of psychosurgery. The use of surgery on the brain to treat psychological disorders. The objective was to relieve stress and anxiety, particullary in patients who did not respond to any other treatment.

Thechniques in pschosurgery.
Obne of the first uses of psychosurgery was a procedure called Lobotomy. Early Lobotomies wer called "Lecotomies" (From 'LEUCO', refering to the white matter of the brain, and 'TOME' to cut). The technique was pioneered by Egas Moniz and decelpoed by Walter Freeman. It was based on a report that Moniz heard in 1935, A laboraty chimp that became very distressed when she made errors on tests was subduded by a bilateral lesion to the pre-frontal areas of her left and right frontal lobes.


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Re: The biological approach

Post by Admin on Thu Sep 18, 2008 1:19 pm

Some of these are very similar and almost word for word the same. You must not copy ANY material from any where else either from the internet or from books/magazines.
If you have copied any of this, please edit the post and write it out in your own words.
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Re: The biological approach

Post by jantwokay on Thu Sep 25, 2008 7:52 pm

Strikes me that you would have to be pretty desperate to allow anyone near your brain with an icepick. It didn't do Trotsky much good, after all! (Teacher joke) Rolling Eyes

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Re: The biological approach

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